Sanctuary Wood

Facts are plain.

During afternoon Sanctuary Wood taken over by  1/5th Lincolns Royal Fusiliers. fourth company remained at battalion headquarters inside the wood itself.
 1.30 p.m. several high calibre shells fired into S.W. corner of wood, one falling directly into newly occupied trench 7. This trench contained machine-gun post,. Two men killed instantly, Privates Tom Burtwhistle from Scunthorpe and 18-year-old drummer Harold Laurence from Aswell Street in Louth. Both men now commemorated on the Menin Gate memorial to missing Ypres.
 Both men recorded as casualties in the 1/5th Lincolns War Diary

The wood was not a sanctuary

The Knight Of The Garter (from The Voyages of Charles Teft Laurence)

Laurence had been discharged from his previous ship, Comorin on 20 December 1878.  He may have had time to celebrate Christmas and New Year at home in Bromley St Leonard, London with his wife Catherine and his one year and ten months old daughter Elizabeth. A few weeks later he stepped aboard the Knight of the Garter as first mate.

The Knight was owned by Greenshields, Cowie & Co. and built by the well-known firm of Thomas Royden & Son, Liverpool, and was launched from their Liverpool shipyard in October 1877.  The first ship of the Knight line to be built she was 233 feet long, with a beam of  37.9 feet and and holds 22.8 depth of  feet and with a gross weight of 1493 and net of 1433.  She had three masts, and was ship rigged.  She was constructed of  iron, had 2 decks and 1 cemented bulkhead. Her Code number – that is, the sequence of flags she flew to identify herself to shore stations or passing ships – was WVCT.  The National Museums of Liverpool have extensive Roydens records. Built for the jute trade she had a good turn of speed, that was to become apparent after my ancestors employment as mate.


I have an inward document for when the ship completed the voyage to Sydney from London. Laurence is listed as first mate. The master was James Hammond, aged 48 from Bristol whose Master Mariners certificate was number 33753. He had been Master of her since 1878. George Maitland, age 23 from Peterhead, Aberdeenshire was second mate on the voyage. His Master  Mariners certificate number was  03295 and had previously served on the Ben Nevis.

The crew had to be on the ship by noon on 27 January 1879. On the same trip esconced in the ships saloon was a Mr Greenshields. He could well have been Robert Low Greenshields of the ships owners Greenshields, Cowie and Co.

Laurence was to receive £8.00 a calendar month, and £4.00 went to Catherine and his daughter. As with the Comorin voyages he was the second best paid on the voyage.  The Knight left London on 29 January 1879  arriving in Sydney, NSW on 19 May 1879 with cases of goods, valued at £68, 700. What was in these cases?  An advert in The Maitland Mercury & Hunter River Advertiser for 10 May 1879 provides a clue: P. Capper & Sons, Maitland, and Capper Bros & Co. Newcastle. The Following Goods Are Invoiced To Arrive During The Present Month

Ex Knight of the Garter from London.

19 cases Gunpowder, in 1 and 1/2 lb flasks, FFF, Glass, Rifle, C and H diamond with . in Centre; 2 cases Square Black and Threaded Nuts; 8 cases of Looking Glasses, assorted; 6 Steel-faced Anvils; 4 Keys Sharp Point Gutter Brackets; 1 case Horse Rasps; 1 case Files, assorted: Taser Saw, half round and (illegible); 1 Cask Copper Rings and Washers, Galvanised Cone-Head Screws for O.G.Guttering; 1 case “Turkey” Stones; 1 case “Brakes” Patent Scythes; 3 bundles Spades, C.P. Black Sockets and N.P.; 3 Bundles Rib Spades, No.s 1,2 and 3, extra long and extra side strap riveted; 1 cask cut Tacks, assorted; 1 case coach lamps, deep bell fronts, 9 in. across; 3 cases of Bedsteads 6 1/2 x 41/2, 3 and 23/4 feet, assorted copies and patterns; 1 case Polished Snaffle Bits No.52 and 2: Stir-raps (Cradle Bottoms), Tulip Shovels, Screw and Drive Bell Carriages; Brass Cocks, Japanned Door Springs, assorted; 1 cask Polishing Black Lead Brushes, Water and Sweeps Brushes, Dram Bottles and Cups (Leather Cards), Plain and Plated Box Spoke Shaves, Screwed; 1 case coppered sofa springs,7,8,9,10 in. ; 1 case Foot lathes No. 321,36 and 42 in. Beds; Gut Drawing Bands, with hooks and eyes; 2 Crates Fenders, assorted; Assortment Camp Ovens and Covers; 1 case “Kley’s” C.F.Revolver Cartridges; 1 case chipping hoes; 1 case “Prices” Carriage Candles; 2 cases Bentalls Chaff Cutters; 1 case Dram Bottles and Cups; Meat Covers 12,14,16, 20 in; 6 Kips Chamois Leather; 1120 Bore BBH Iron; 20 Bundles Sheet Iron, 6 x 3 feet, 12,10,14,16,18, 209; 20 cases Gospel Oak Galvanised Corrugated Iron. Further adverts in the Sydney Morning Herald that appeared as the ship unloaded show the wide variety of goods the Knight brought into Sydney:
She left Sydney on 11 July 1879 with 7040 tons of coal for Balfour, Guthrie & Co., unloading at San Francisco. Arriving at this port on 12th September, 16 ABs deserted so another 16 ABs were engaged.  According to the daily newspaper Alta California of 29 October 1879, she left San Francisco laden with wheat for Europe arriving in Liverpool 2nd March 1880.


She left Liverpool on 10 April 1880 with more or less the same crew as the previous voyage. She gave herself less than a month to prepare for it. There was a new cook and boatswain. She arrived in Calcutta on 27 July. I can find no newspapers that detail the cargo. Outward it may have been machinery, coal, rails or cement, and homeward from India cotton, jute, rice and linseed. 4 ABs were discharged, and 4 engaged. She left  on 8 September and arriving in Hull on 24 December 1880. In the Bill of Duty for Hull it lists the inward goods as linseed, scrap iron and iron turnings for Moran and Sanderson.


She left North Shields February 21 1881. Again, the Captain was James Hammond. Laurence had to be on the ship by 6 February at 4 a.m. The new Second mate was Henry Wright, aged 20, from Whitby, certificate No. 06681.    An account of the voyage is chronicled in the Daily Alta California of 31 July 1881. At this point she was 152 days from North Shields; 2152 tons coal, 10 tons pig iron to Balfour, Guthrie & Co. Her journey is described in the same papers ‘memoranda’ section, the date of departure differs from the crew agreement: Sailed Feb 10; passed Start Point on the 17th; crossed equator March 9th, lon 27W; passed 50S in Atlantic April 19th, lon 6518W; passed through the Straits of Le Maire and passed 50S in Pacific May 7th, lon 80W; crossed equator June 5th., lon 115W; had fair run to lat of Rio; thence to 40S was 40 days, with light baffling winds and calms; had the usual Cape Horn weather, and thence to the equator had fair weather; was 30 days from 50S to the equator, and from thence to 20N was 28 days with light northerly and calms; thence to 30N moderate NE Trades; thence took westerly winds and on the 10th inst. had heavy northerly gale, during which split some sails. On April 12th lat 40S, lon 59W, saw Br. ship Oriflamme, from London to San Francisco; she had been in company for a week previous. Arrived San Francisco 12 July 1881, left 25 August, 1881. An account of the first part of the voyage is in the Sydney Morning Herald dated Saturday September 13, 1881. Sailed July 14th (?); passed north capes of New Zealand on the 19th. Carried westerly winds to the meridian of 180, thence to 150W, had N.E. winds, had moderate SE trades well to eastward; 60 miles West of Tahiti; lost the SE trades in lat 7N; got the NE trades in lat 10N, well to the eastward, passed 500 to the eastward of Sandwich Islands; thence had fresh westerly winds to the 9th inst. then a strong NNW gale and heavy sea, lasting 25 hours, during which sustained considerable damage about decks; had heavy NW sea for the past 10 days.   No clue as to cargo, but it may have again been wheat.   Sydney Morning Herald 28 May p.11
of the
have just opened a splendid assortment of Fancy Wool Goods, now on sale. Operettes, in white and coloured; Salisbury Capes, Shetland Wrap Tippets, Squares, Shawls, and every imagi-
nable Style and shape. These goods are exceptionally cheap,
being personally selected, but owing to the tedious passage of the Knight of the Garter, in which they were, they must he cleared
out, and at once. They have been marked very low to effect this
White Wool Operettes
White Carriage Rolls
White and Coloured Wraps.
of the Haymarket. Arrived Belfast 29 December 1881.


Departed Liverpool, 21 February 1882, bound for Calcutta. Returned Hull 27th November 1882. Again no newspaper evidence of the cargo but it may have been as described for voyage two. In the Bill of Duty for 28th November 1882 the inward cargo us listed as linseed for Moran and Sanderson.


As to her later life, on one occasion, she raced her sister ship Knight of the Thistle launched April 1878 home from the colonies to arrive at Falmouth within three hours of each other after a passage of 88 days. She was credited with 99 days from Portland, Oregon, to Kinsale Head in 1892 and two years later 79 days from Valparaiso to New York. In 1896 the decision was taken to sell her. Auctioned at Cardiff in 1897 she was bought by G.B.  and F. Razeto, Genoa, realising £5,400 and renamed Papa Emanuele. In 1902, bought by G.B. Figaro and A. Razeto, Genoa. 1907, bought by Armanino, Sanguinetti and Co. , Montevideo, renamed Montevideo. In 1912 bought by B. Savona fu G, Tapani, renamed Gaspare S. In 1917 she was reduced to a barque and in 1918 bought by E.N. Guglielmo fu F, Genoa. In 1919 by G.B.A. Piaggio, Genoa, who fitted her with an auxiliary steam engine.  Finally in 1923 bought by Armatori Riuniti Liguri-Lombardi, Genoa. In 1923 she was broken up.

The Mounting Steps (1793, Peaudanes Diary)

I heard eighty three year old John Wesley speak today from the mounting steps of The White bear Inn. His step was firm, his appearance vigorous and muscular. A clear, smooth forehead, an aquiline nose, lightest and most piercing eyes, freshness of complexion. His countenance and demeanour was cheerfulness mixed with gravity; an unusual flow of spirits but a mark of tranquillity. In dress, a pattern of neatness and simplicity. A narrow plaited stock, a coat with a small upright collar, no buckles at his knee, no silk or velvet in any part of his apparel and a head as white as snow.
He preached for an hour or so, filled out and varied the basic material with anecdotes and illustrations. Throughout he spoke in plain language. His subject appropriate for this commercial town: gain all you can, save all you can, give all you can. When we gain all we can it must be from honest trades, we must not haggle over prices and usury should not be tolerated. Conspicuous consumption is wastefulness. We gain and save only to give, and when we give we should do so to the poor. Salvation for all is not dependent on good works but must issue from good works as part of our progress.
He who is holy, humble, courteous, mild,
And who, as heav’n’s viceregent strives to prove Himself entitled to the rank he holds,
Deserves our admiration and applause.
What an economist thou wast of time; What method, regularity, and form, Thou shew’dst in ev’ry action of thy life, And all this for the honour of thy God, And the advantage of thy fellow men, without a mercenary view in it,
I cannot but applaud thee for such deeds Admire thy ardour, venerate thy name, And eulogize thee, as the best of men.

The Decision To Use First Names

I said to Friend Peaudane, as we walked Dearne Flats by the serpentine river that he has more than proved his worth as a husband. I would gladly accept him in such a position and be willing to bear him children to cement our association. He answered that it is only a beginning and we must both strive for the ends I described to him at the beginning, extravagance in OUr generosity towards others, nboth personally and publicly. It is now Friend Peaudane, that wishes me to call him Richard as he shall call me Sarah and that we should wait a time yet till we are married. He has his duty to Joseph and family to fulfill.
Yesterday he was present when Susannah, Joseph’s wife gave birth to their second son. Joseph and his brother James who is now living there too pacing up and down, wanting to drown his sorrows, while Richard soothed his furrowed brow with optimistic expressions. But, upon the reception of the child after its sojourn with Susannah, Joseph was all Pray god children are ugly when there but bairns. Richard saw the pride in Joseph’s eyes. Richard wishes to prove his worth to me as a wife as soon as Joseph and Susannah have found a cottage at a place called Old Mill. Here Joseph will raise kine and have a loom. His brother James is to
lodge with Mrs Jackson at the King’s Head. I shall move in with Richard promptly.

The Proposal of Richard Peaudane

I propose a News room for our town. It would enable commercial men as myself to remove ignorance and promote self improvement: a place where new ideas could be discussed, away from the mughouses: where only nonsense is spoken. Clearly, for its upkeep a small charge must be made. More, perhaps for those living outside the toll-bars. Such is the hope for this town that rumours are alive of plans being prepared for the coming of the canal; coaches and packmen being unreliable and prone to attack
from brigands and highwaymen. A News room would show foreign tradesmen that the men of this town have a great hope for its prosperity, and prevent the incidence of rumour that is brought forth through ignorance

Dress Sense

Friend Richard Peaudane has removed his garish dress and thinks to impress me with this. I reminded him of my other stipulation: plainness of manner. He says he has observed John Wesley preaching in the town and would hold him also as another example of neatness and cleanliness. Methodists hold much the same persecuted position in this society as we held in the previous century; prone to preaching so as to change society, a cause we have fallen from, after much of our brethren were persecuted. Though, it must be said they support our Friend William Wilberforce in his fight against slavery, Perhaps Friend Peaudane is correct in following John Wesleys example: A black frock without decoration and a white ruffle, In appearance, at least, he is what I would hope for in a spouse.I then reminded him, that though plain in appearance, the nature of a Quaker is consideration for others. I espoused my belief in the evils of slavery. A commercial man, I was surprised that he also felt the indignity, the horrific notion of one man the slave of another as the basis for a good society was a venal sin. With each conversation and change in the man, if only cosmetic I begin to see his fair and just side. This has impressed upon me more than his change of costume.


10. The Drying Fields of Linen

O monster of reason what have you forgotten:
how we wet the drying fields of linen
and Barley where you ground my com with a jug of mughouse ale
and fresh and naughty manners; this was our rusticating;

you strode a giant amongst my hills and made the river flow.

Now you stride through town cocking a snoop
at all you laughed and jollied with before;
nothing but a prig made up to look like summat.

But your dear pouch must yearn
like a custom weavers shuttle for some
decent to and fro.

I know my threads are breaking without your damp,
snapping like twigs in Autumn,
Arid dry as an empty jug.


4. The Custom Weaver, Richard Peaudane contemplates marriage

Joseph Lister is one of my many custom weavers. I shall offer him board in my premises. It will remove my loneliness awhile and further prove to Sarah my will to have her bound to me.
Joseph and his brother James have inherited a four-loom shop at Beaver Hoyle from their uncle, John Lupton. Joseph has acquired a wife, Susannah Bottomley of Wool dale and a son. Susannah is pregnant again. John wishes to make a life separate from his brother James. He is a regular and fastidious workman like his uncle. And John Lupton
portrays his nephew as a pattern of industry. As he produces the linen that we may spread it out on the fields to dry, to croft, so he may gather it up and store it in my attendant warehouse. If I cannot help him in his progress then I am the poorer man as my future wife Sarah has taught
As I observe Susannah with Joseph, she is constantly curbing his generous nature. A beggar came to Our door and asked for shoes and Joseph gave him his best brogues without a thought. Susannah scolded Joseph with the words: We have not enough for our own feet and you give away our best. We must gain and save before we can give! Joseph, smiles and kisses her pregnant stomach. As I presumed a wife becomes more than a companion, but a moral arbiter. A family dispels the disconsolate air. This place of mine does not feel so empty. It only lacks a wife for myself

3. Sarah’s Advice To A Dissolute from her diary, 1830 (Extract from The Bleaching of Richard Peaudane)

An impertinent fellow has attended our Friends Meeting House; offending our plainness. If a Man would have me for a Wife; he would not decorate himself in extravagance: buckles and silk. And a manner more presumptious could not be imagined; and he imagined himself a Quaker.
I could only speak of self-reformation if he would a husband make. I had heard of such a fellow. Rumour, may not be a good way to dispel ignorance but it provides the cIues to a fellows standing in his society. Richard Peaudane is a dissolute, a frequenter of taverns. His industry being linen manufacturing, is a respectable one and such pillars of our society as William Wilson, linen manufacturer recently removed from Cheshire and set up his business in Bamsley should be his example: plain in dress, plain in manner. I told him this and I will not dismiss the fellow outright: such would not have the spirit of generosity. Perhaps with his effecting of changes to his manner and nature he may be a suitable fellow for my consideration. His face is kind his business prosperous: his father was a draper and grocer. Youth may be the reason for his impertinence but the state of marriage is one for mature persons. I told him this also.

5. Wild Woman

Unmanned, like a bull bereft of all;
a flaccid decoration without use;
at least if thee had what I have thou could be a woman;
eunuch hiding your treasure for marriage
and hypocrisy. And leave me with empty decoration;
rings without sense,
dresses without purpose.

Go about your business thou say
I want nothing to do with thee now;
yet not a month ago it was all Peggy this,
Peggy that; such are the changes of the seasons.
I cannot give birth to an empty ache;
wet nurse it; teach it its fathers worth;
I cannot tell the ache how we loved,
how we met, how we joyed.

I cannot sit round this mughouse days and months
I must out into the world
roll in the smell of Man again
with a jug of ale in one hand
and earning a stony crust
from some wight with a jangling purse. And forget the bull that was castrated.